The main categories of abuse
Below are the main types of abuse. It is important not to jump to the wrong conclusion; the following may be indicators of many different problems.
This is non-accidental harm to the body. It can include hitting, pushing, punching, kicking, pulling hair, rough handling, spitting, misuse of medication or inappropriate use of restraint.
Physical abuse can present as:
Women's Aid defines domestic abuse as 'physical, sexual, psychological, or financial violence that takes place within an intimate or family-type relationship and forms a pattern of cohesive and controlling behaviour. This can include forced marriage and so-called 'honour crimes', domestic violence and abuse may include a range of abusive behaviours that may not include physical violence.
Domestic violence and abuse should only need to be addressed under Safeguarding procedures and guidance if;
Sexual abuse includes rape or attempted rape, sexual assault or sexual acts to which the adult at risk has not consented, could not consent or was pressured into consenting. Sexual abuse also includes acts of sexual harassment or non-contact abuse such as pornography.
Signs of sexual abuse include:
Psychological and emotional abuse
This can include threats of harm or abandonment, intimidation, deprivation of contact or cultural needs, humiliation, blame or verbal. Signs of psychological abuse include:
Financial or Material Abuse
Finance or material abuse includes property theft, fraud, exploitation, internet-scamming, pressure in connection with wills, property, inheritance or financial transactions; or the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits.
Modern slavery encompasses; slavery, human trafficking, forced labour and domestic servitude. Traffickers and slave masters use whatever means they have at their disposal to coerce, deceive and force individuals into a life of abuse, servitude and inhumane treatment.
Radicalisation is defined as the process by which an individual comes to support any form of extremism or terrorism. It has the potential to cause significant harm to the individuals and to others and is therefore aligned to safeguarding principles.
PREVENT is part of the UK's counter termism strategy, aimed at reducing the risk of people (including patients and/or staff) becoming involved and know who to discuss our concerns with. Familiarise yourself with your organisations policy and procedure on escalating a concern.
Discriminatory and oppressive attitudes towards race, gender, cultural background, religion, physical and/or sensory impairment, sexual orientation and age.
Signs of discriminatory behaviour include;
Mate crime and hate crime
Hate crime can be defined as, "any hate incident, which constitutes a criminal offence, perceived by the victim or any other person, as being motivated by prejudice or hate". Adults may, therefore, be victims of mate/hate crime due to age, disability, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, socio-economics, race/ethnicity, religion/beliefs or lifestyle choice.
Mate crime is usually used to refer to abuse of an adult with care and support needs where the victim is being abused or exploited by one or more people who the victim wanted to be their friend, particularly in situations where the victim was otherwise isolated and lonely.
Organisational abuse of people with care needs can occur in any service provided to people with care needs, including;
Neglect and acts of omission
Including ignoring medical or physical care needs, failure to provide access to appropriate health, social care or educational needs or services, inadequate nutrition or heating, failure to protect privacy or dignity, poor environmental conditions.
Self-neglect is now a category of abuse under the Care Act Statutory Guidance 2014. The Care Act includes duties on health and care services and service commissioners to promote well-being. There are many types of self-neglect and many factors that can contribute to people neglecting themselves and putting themselves at risk. People who neglect themselves can often be at risk of other forms of abuse and exploitation.